Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. When sepsis occurs, chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight the infection trigger inflammatory responses throughout the body. This inflammation can trigger a cascade of changes that can damage multiple organ systems, causing them to fail.

If sepsis progresses to septic shock, blood pressure drops dramatically, which may lead to death.

More in-hospital deaths are due to Sepsis than any other cause. Sepsis represented 5.2% of all U.S. costs for hospitalizations in 2011; over $20 billion in hospital-related costs alone.2

Anyone can develop Sepsis, though it's most common and most dangerous in infants, children, older adults or those with weakened immune systems.3

Globally, someone dies of sepsis every few seconds. Sepsis impacts more than a million Americans annually and it's been estimated that between 28 and 50 percent of these people die1—far more than the number of U.S. deaths from prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS combined.1 The number of sepsis cases doubled between 2000 and 2008, and continues to rise each year.1

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Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in from the blood. HE seems to be caused by toxins that build up in the blood and then reach the brain. The severity of HE is judged according to the symptoms. HE will not get better on its own, and will likely get worse without continuous treatment. The severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy is commonly graded on a numeric scale with Grade 0 patient being near normal and Grade 4 patient being comatose.4

The US national charges related to hospitalizations for hepatic encephalopathy have been estimated to range from about $1 billion per year to upwards of $7 billion per year.5

Roughly 337,000 are diagnosed with HE in the U.S. each year. Over 27,000 people die of end stage liver disease annually.6

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